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Historic references to the city go back to the 4th century and to Roman times, although Celtic and Proto-Celtic remnants of ancient Citadels were found in the heart of where Porto now lies. In the Roman period the city developed its importance as a commercial port, primarily in the trade between Olissipona (Lisbon) and Bracara Augusta (nowadays Braga), but would fall under the Moorish Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula in 711. In 868, Vímara Peres, a Christian warlord from Gallaecia and a vassal of the King of Asturias, Léon and Galicia, Alfonso III, was sent to reconquer and secure from the Moors the area from the Minho River to the Douro River, including the city of Portus Cale, later Porto and Gaia, from where the name and political entity of Portugal emerged. In 868 Count Vímara Peres established the County of Portugal (Portuguese: Condado de Portucale), after the reconquest of the region north of the Douro river.

Façade of the cathedral (completed in the 13th century)
In 1095, Teresa of León, illegitimate daughter of king Alfonso VI of Castile, married Henry of Burgundy, bringing the County of Portugal as dowry. This Condado Portucalense became the focus of the Reconquista and later became the independent Kingdom of Portugal, after eventually expanding to its current frontiers into the south as it reconquered territory back from the invading Moors under the reign of King Afonso I of Portugal in the beginning of the 1st millennium.
In 1387, this city was the scene for the marriage of João I and Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, symbolizing the long-standing military alliance between Portugal and England, the world's oldest military alliance, which still holds via NATO. At the time of his marriage the king stayed at the Church of St. Francis as a proof of his esteem for the Franciscans.
In the 14th and the 15th centuries, the shipyards of Porto contributed to the development of the Portuguese fleet. In 1415 Henry the Navigator, son of João I, left from Porto to conquest the Muslim port of Ceuta in northern Morocco. This expedition led to the exploratory voyages that he later sent down the coast of Africa. Portuenses are referred to this day as "tripeiros", in reference to the fact that higher quality meat would be loaded onto ships to feed sailors, while off-cuts and by-products such as tripe would be left behind and eaten by the citizens of Porto. Tripe remains a culturally important dish in modern day Porto.
In the 13th century, wine produced in the Douro valley, was being transported to Porto in barcos rabelos (flat sailing vessels). In 1703 the Methuen Treaty established the trade relations between Portugal and England. It allowed English woolen cloth to be admitted into Portugal free of duty. In return, Portuguese wines imported into England would be subject to a third less duty in contrast to French imported wines. This was particularly important with regards to the Port industry. As England was at war with France it became increasingly difficult to acquire wine and so port started to become a popular replacement. In 1717 a first English trading post was established in Porto. The production of port wine then gradually passed into the hands of a few English firms. To counter this English dominance, prime minister Marquis of Pombal established a Portuguese firm receiving the monopoly of the wines from the Douro valley. He demarcated the region for production of port, to ensure the wine's quality; his was the first attempt to control wine quality and production in Europe. The small winegrowers revolted against his strict policies on Shrove Tuesday, burning down the buildings of this firm. The revolt was called Revolta dos Borrachos (revolt of the drunks) and became a symbol of the freedom spirit of the inhabitants of Porto.

Church of St. Francis
Between 1732 and 1763, Italian architect Nicolau Nasoni designed a baroque church with a tower that would become its icon: the Torre dos Clérigos (English: Clerics Tower).
During the 18th and 19th centuries the city became an important industrial centre and saw its size and population increase. The invasion of the Napoleonic troops in Portugal under Marshal Soult is still vividly remembered in Porto. A day after the French victory at the First Battle of Porto, on 29 March 1809, as the population fled for the advancing troops and tried to cross the river Douro over the Ponte das Barcas (a pontoon bridge), the bridge collapsed under the weight. Possibly 6,000 people drowned in the disaster. This event is still remembered by a plate at the Ponte D. Luis I. The French army was rooted out of Porto by Anglo-Portuguese forces commanded by Arthur Wellesley in the Second Battle of Porto, when his troops crossed the Douro river from the Mosteiro da Serra do Pilar (a former convent) in a brilliant daylight coup de main.
Influenced by liberal revolutions occurring in Europe, the Liberal Revolution of 1820 started in Porto. The revolutionaries demanded the return of John VI of Portugal, who had transferred the Portuguese Court to the Portuguese colony of Brazil since the French invasions of Portugal, it also demanded a constitutional monarchy to be set up in Portugal. In 1822 a liberal constitution was accepted, partly through the efforts of the liberal assembly of Porto (Junta do Porto). When Miguel of Portugal took the Portuguese throne in 1828, he rejected this constitution and reigned as an absolutist monarch, initiating a civil war. Porto rebelled again and had to undergo a siege of eighteen months between 1832 and 1833 by the Miguelist army. After the abdication of king Miguel the liberal constitution was re-established. Porto is also called "Cidade Invicta" (English: Unvanquished City) after its resistance to the Miguelist army in the siege of Porto. s Unrest by republicans led to a revolt in Porto on 31 January 1891. This would result ultimately in the creation of the Portuguese Republic in 1910.
A two-level iron bridge – Dom Luís I (designed by the Belgian engineer Téophile Seyrig, from 1868 until 1879 the partner Gustave Eiffel), and a railway bridge – Maria Pia, designed by Eiffel in association with Seyrig, were constructed, as well as the central railway station (São Bento, considered to be one of the most beautiful in Europe, ornamented with lavish painted tiles). A higher learning institution in nautical sciences (Aula de Náutica, 1762) and a stock exchange (Bolsa do Porto, 1834) were established in the city but would be discontinued later.
For having resisted a year long siege laid by D.Miguel's army during the civil war that took place in the 19th century and opposed King D.Miguel, with the "absolutist" Party to his brother the future king D.Pedro IV with the "liberalist" assuring the victory of the "liberalists" the city was titled By D.Maria, D.pedro's daughter and had become known ever since has the "Ancient, Very Noble, Always loyal Undefeated City" (Antiga, Mui Nobre, Sempre leal,Cidade Invicta).
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Parque Nacional da Penda-Geres 2014
Probably, because the Gerês mountains are an inhospitable place, the oldest signs of human presence date only from 6000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.; dolmens and other megalithic tombs remain interspersed within the region, including near Castro Laboreiro and Mourela. Human activities consisted of animal husbandry and incipient agriculture, and archaeological evidence points to the beginning of decrease in forest cover.
The Roman Geira, a Roman road, crosses the region, which formerly connected the Roman civitas of Asturgia and Braccara Augusta. Long stretches of the road, along the Homem River are still preserved, along with several Roman bridges and numerous millenarium markers. The Germanic tribe of the Buri accompanied the Suebi in their invasion of the Iberian Peninsula and establishment in Gallaecia (modern northern Portugal and Galicia). The Buri settled in the region between the Cávado and Homem Rivers, in the area later known as Terras de Bouro (Land of the Buri). The move from the terraced cliffs and slopes to the lowland river valleys brought-on a patterned of new deforestation.
The reoccupation of mountain areas started in the 12th century, intensifying the 16th century with the introduction of maize, bean and potato from the Americas. Agricultural fields occupied former pastures, and these were displaced to more elevated areas resulting in a mosaic of fields, pastures and forests.
The reforestation of uncultivated lands, imposed by the government in 1935, reduced the available pastures, and contributed to a rural exodus that continued after the 1950s. Yet, it was still common practice for the residents of mountain communities to spend part of the year in two locations, primarily near Castro Laboreiro. From about Easter to about Christmas, residents would live in homes above 1,000 m above sea level, known as branda (from the Portuguese brando, meaning mild or gentle). In the remaining part of the year, these inhabitants would occupy homes in the river valley, known as inverneira (from the Portuguese Inverno, meaning winter).
In 1970, the village of Vilarinho das Furnas was flooded by the Vilarinho das Furnas dam on the Homem River. During years with low rainfall, the village ruins stands above the water, attracting thousands of tourists.
The creation of the National Park (completed under decree no. 187/71, 8 May 1971) envisioned a planning area of mountainous spaces, in order to conserve the environment, while permitting human and natural resource activities, which would include educational, touristic and scientific projects. At heart is the conservation of soils, water, flora and fauna, in addition to the preservation of landscapes within the vast mountainous region in the northwest of Portugal.
In 1997, Peneda-Gerês was included in the Natura 2000 network, and in 1999, designated a Special Protection Area for Wild Birds.Moreover it also encompasses an important area of natural forest, that integrates the European Network of Biogenetic Reserves, and is recognized as a National Park by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. In 2007, it was accepted in the PAN Parks network that certifies the quality protected areas, according to rigorous criteria of nature conservation, cultural services and sustainability.
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Conceicao - Algarve
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(Aug 31, 2014)
Tavira (Portuguese pronunciation: [tɐˈviɾɐ]) is a Portuguese city, situated in the east of the Algarve on the south coast of Portugal. It is 28 kilometres (17 miles) east of Faro and 177 kilometres (110 miles) west of Seville in Spain. The Gilão River meets the Atlantic Ocean in Tavira.
Tavira medieval bridge.
Tavira's origins date back to the late Bronze Age (1.000-800 BC). In the 8th century BC it became one of the first Phoenician settlements in the Iberian West. The Phoenicians created a colonial urban center here with massive walls, at least two temples, two harbours and a regular urban structure. Phoenician Tavira existed until the end of 6th Century BC, when it was destroyed by conflict.
It is thought its original name was Baal Saphon, named after the Phoenician Thunder and Sea god. This name later became Balsa.
After a century of being abandoned, the settlement recovered, during the urban bloom that characterised the so-called Tartessian Period, and became bigger than ever. This second urban center, Tartessian Tavira, was also abandoned by the end of the 4th Century BC.
The main centre then moved to nearby Cerro do Cavaco, a fortified hill occupied until the time of Emperor Augustus.
The Roman Empire to the Moorish Conquest
During the time of Caesar, the Romans created a new port, some 7 km (4 mi) from Tavira, named Balsa. Balsa became a big town, in fact much bigger than Tavira, that grew, prospered and decayed in parallel with the Roman Empire. When the Moors conquered Iberia, in the 8th Century, Balsa was already extinct as a town.
Under Roman rule, Tavira was a secondary passing place on the important road between Balsa and Baesuris (today Castro Marim).
Moorish Rule

Santiago church
The Moorish occupation of Tavira between the 8th and 13th centuries left its mark on the agriculture, architecture and culture of the area. That influence can still be seen in Tavira today with its whitewashed buildings, Moorish style doors and rooftops. Tavira Castle, two mosques and palaces were built by the Moors. The impressive seven arched "Roman bridge" is now not considered to be Roman after a recent archaeological survey, but originates from a 12th Century Moorish bridge. This was a good time economically for Tavira, which established itself an important port for sailors and fishermen. The area stayed rural until the 11th Century when Moorish Tavira (from the Arabic Tabira, "the hidden") started to grow rapidly, becoming one of the important (and independent) towns of the Algarve, then the South-Western extreme of Gharb al-Andalus (the West of Islamic Iberian territories).
(Extensive bibliography about these historical periods can be seen at www.arqueotavira.com)
The Reconquista[edit]
In 1242 Dom Paio Peres Correia took Tavira back from the Moors in a bloody conflict of retaliation after seven of his principal Knights were killed during a period of truce, the population of the town was decimated during this battle. Christians were now back in control of Tavira and though most Muslims left the town some remained in a Moorish quarter known as "Mouraria".

Fishing boat in Tavira
The 1755 Earthquake
In the 17th Century the port on its river was of considerable importance, shipping produce such as salt, dried fish and wine. Like most of the Algarve its buildings were virtually all destroyed by the earthquake of 1755. This earthquake is thought to have reached a magnitude of 9 on the Richter scale and caused extensive damage throughout the Algarve due to shock waves and tsunamis. The earthquake is referred to as the Lisbon Earthquake due to its terrible effects on the capital city, although the epicentre was some 200 km (124 mi) west-southwest of Cape St. Vincent in the Algarve.
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Faro 2014
(Aug 31, 2014)
The Ria Formosa lagoon attracted human occupants from the Palaeolithic age until the end of pre-history. During that time a settlement grew up – Ossonoba – which was an important town during the period of Roman occupation and, according to historians, the forerunner of present-day Faro. From the 3rd century onwards and during the Visigothic period it was the site of an Episcopal see.
With the advent of Moorish rule in the 8th century Ossonoba retained its status as the most important town in the southwest corner of the Iberian Peninsula. In the 9th century it became the capital of a short-lived princedom and was fortified with a ring of defensive walls. At this time the name Santa Maria ("Shantamariyyat al-Gharb" in Arabic) began to be used instead of Ossonoba in the 10th century . Later on the town was known as Faro (Pharaoh). During the 500 years of Moorish rule there were some Jewish inhabitants in Faro who wrote copies of the Old Testament. One of Faro's historical names in Arabic is أخشونبة (ʼUḫšūnubaḧ). The Moors were defeated by the forces of the Portuguese King Afonso III in 1249.[4] With the decline of the importance of the city of Silves, Faro took over the role of administration of the Algarve area.
The Earl of Essex sacked the town in 1596 and seized the library of the Bishop of Faro. These books appeared later in the University of Oxford as part of the Bodleian Library. One of the books sacked was the first ever printed book in Portugal - a Torah in local Hebrew / Judeo Español - printed by Samuel Gacon at his workshop in Faro.
Lagos had become the capital of the historical province of Algarve in 1577 and remained so until 1756, the year following the destruction of much of the town by the 1755 Lisbon earthquake. The earthquake damaged several areas in the Algarve, where a tsunami dismantled some coastal fortresses and, in the lower levels, razed houses. Almost all the coastal towns and villages of the Algarve were heavily damaged, except Faro, which was protected by the sandy banks of Ria Formosa lagoon. Since then Faro has been the administrative seat of the region.
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Massachusetts U.S .Army Security Agency - Ft. Devens / Menwith Hills, England
The United States Army Security Agency (ASA) was the United States Army's signal intelligence branch. The Latin motto of the Army Security Agency was Semper Vigilis (Vigilant Always), which echoes Thomas Jefferson's declaration that "The price of freedom is eternal vigilance."[2] The Agency existed between 1945 and 1976 and was the successor to Army signal intelligence operations dating back to World War I. ASA was under the operational control of the Director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA), located at Fort Meade, Maryland; but had its own tactical commander at Headquarters, ASA, Arlington Hall Station, VA. Besides intelligence gathering, it had responsibility for the security of Army communications and for electronic countermeasures operations. In 1977, the ASA was merged with the US Army's Military Intelligence component to create the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM).

Composed of soldiers trained in military intelligence, the ASA was tasked with monitoring and interpreting military communications of the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, and their allies and client states around the world. The ASA was directly subordinate to the National Security Agency and all major field stations had NSA technical representatives present.

All gathered information had time-sensitive value depending on its importance and classification. Information was passed through intelligence channels within hours of intercept for the lowest-priority items, but in as little as 10 minutes for the most highly critical information.

ASA personnel were stationed at locations around the globe, wherever the United States had a military presence – publicly acknowledged or otherwise. In some cases, such as Eritrea, it was the primary military presence. One former Field Station, outside of Harrogate, England, in what is now North Yorkshire, was a primary listening post that was subsequently turned over to the British and became an RAF station. It is called RAF Menwith Hill and has been the site of peace protests.

Vietnam War
Although not officially serving under the ASA name, covertly designated as Radio Research, ASA personnel of the 3rd Radio Research Unit were among the earliest U.S. military personnel in Vietnam; 3rd later grew to become the 509th Radio Research Group.
The first ASA soldier to be a battlefield fatality of the Vietnam War was Specialist 4 James T. Davis (from Livingston, Tennessee) who was killed on 22 December 1961, on a road near the old French Garrison of Cau Xang. He had been assigned to the 3rd Radio Research Unit at Tan Son Nhut Airport near Saigon, along with 92 other members of his unit. Davis Station, at Tan Son Nhut, was named after him. Although President Lyndon Johnson later termed Davis "the first American to fall in the defense of our freedom in Vietnam", a look at the Vietnam Veterans' memorial shows that he was nowhere near the first U.S. fatality.

Most ASA personnel processed in country through Davis Station. Others attached to larger command structures prior to transport to Vietnam processed in with those units. ASA personnel were attached to Army infantry and armored cavalry units throughout the Vietnam War. Some teams were also attached to the Studies and Observation Group of Military Assistance Command Vietnam and special forces units. Other teams were independent of other army units, such as the 313th Radio Research Brigade at Nha Trang. ASA personnel remained in Vietnam after the 1973 pullout of US Army combat forces and remained present until the Fall of Saigon in April 1975.

Personnel== ASA MOSs include:
Voice intercept operators, who are usually linguists with MOS 98G (plus a four character suffix (pLnn) to indicate proficiency level and language code), morse code high speed intercept operators ("Ditty Boppers", MOS 058 and later "Hogs" for their 05H designation), non-morse (teletype and voice) intercept operators (05K), communications security/signal security specialists (05G), direction-finding equipment operators ("Duffys" for their 05D designation), computer system operators (74E) who operated equipment at the NSA headquarters and out in the field; A K3 attacked to the primary MOS ment the person was qualified to operate Jamming equipment. There was an additional MOS known as a 93G-Microbarograph specialist. The last class for this MOS was taught at Ft. Devens 1968-1969.

Crypto-Clerks (72B), Cryptanalyst/Cryptanalytic Technician (crippies),(98B), communications traffic analysts (98C), voice intercept operators (Monterey-Marys)(98G) non-communications intercept/analysts (98J – radar and telemetry) electronic cryptographic maintenance technicians(32F-G, and 33S), and Specialized Teletypewriter Equipment Repairman (31J B3).

Electronic Maintenance MOS' included 32D Technical Controller, 33B intercept equipment repairman, 33C Intercept Receiver Repairman, 33D Intercept Record System Repairmen, 33F Digital Demultiplex Intercept Systems Repairman, 34F Digital Systems Terminal Equipment Repairman and 33G Electronics Countermeasures System Repairmen and a 44 man Special Operations Detachment or field teams to conduct clandestine combat operations, among others. ASA had its own separate training facilities, communication centers and chain of command. In 1976, all 33 MOS designations were consolidated into one field, 33S Electronic Repairman. The designation became Electronic Warfare Intercept Systems Repairman.

Other specialists intercepted and analyzed radar transmissions or intercepted communications and data transmissions from missiles and satellites.

These occupations, which required a top secret clearance with Special Intelligence/crypto special clearances, were essential to U.S. Cold War efforts. ASA units usually operated in four groups called 'tricks', using revolving shifts to provide coverage twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. ASA troops were not allowed to discuss their operations with outsiders – in fact, they could not talk among themselves about their duties unless they were in a secure location. Even today, some of the missions still cannot be discussed. ASA personnel processing out of sensitive operations were debriefed and signed a document specifying a thirty-year elapsed time before they could discuss what they had done or observed. Note: Information other than XGDS (eXempt from General Declassification Schedule) is automatically declassified after 30 years.

Owing to the sensitivity of the information with which they worked, ASA personnel were subject to travel restrictions during and sometimes after their time in service.[citation needed] The activities of the ASA have only recently been partially declassified. This turn of events has been accompanied by the appearance of a small number of ASA memoirs and novels (see the list below).
Human resources (1945–1965

The ASA, during the majority of the years of its existence, was largely a "Cold War" operation. ASA enlisted troops were usually recruited from those scoring in the top 2% of scores in aptitude tests given during initial induction.

The Army itself exhibited little concern for the ASA until 1965, as it was a "Joint venture" essentially under the control of a civilian organization. However, there was a general concern in the Department of the Army that enlisted technicians of all kinds should be given recognition and adequate pay in order to retain them. Accordingly, in 1954, Army Regulation 615–15 created the grades of Specialists Four, Five, Six, and Seven, (SP4, SP5, SP6, SP7) corresponding to Corporal (E4), Sergeant (E5), Staff Sergeant (E6), and Sergeant First Class (E7), in order to get around the general Table of Organization and Equipment restrictions on the total number of individuals (normally regular NCOs), who could be placed in these grades. Promotion in the specialist grades was fairly rapid with specialists with two years of military experience reaching E5 and E6 in another two years. Due to the long training requirements, an initial four-year enlistment was normal. However despite sometimes intensive efforts to retain personnel, reenlistment rates were very low.

In 1958, DA Reg 344–303 also created Specialist Grades Specialist Eight and Nine. There were never more than a handful of Specialist 7’s in the ASA and no individual in the ASA was ever promoted to the grades of Specialist 8 or 9 before these top grades were eliminated in 1965.[citation needed] Promotion to warrant officer after E7 was the normal military progression in ASA units.

The officers within the ASA were generally commissioned into the Signal Corps branch since there was no separate branch for ASA. Effective in 1967, the Military Intelligence (MI) branch stood up and officers were commissioned into MI.

In today’s Army, modern technology has largely replaced the specific tasks performed by most ASA troops. The current Army MOS Military Intelligence 35 series involving SIGINT, requires the same high security clearance levels as the old ASA standards. However, the modern Soldier in the MOS 35 series actually perform the full range of now computer-driven SIGINT functions that the average ASA trooper performed manually. These functions are still performed today, they are collection, processing, analysis and reporting. Before computers were brought to bear on the very complex problem of communications/signals analysis ASA personnel performed these functions by hand.

ASA specialists and linguists were recruited from high-scoring enlistees or inductees. Specialists in different MOS were trained at Arlington Hall Station, Fort Devens Massachusetts and the Joint Service Cryptologic Center and School at Goodfellow Air Force Base in San Angelo, Texas. Some communications personnel were trained at Signal Corps facilities while those selected to be linguists were given 9 to 12 month language courses which were usually taught by native born instructors at DLI at the Presidio of Monterey, California and in Washington, D.C. Native born speakers in Spanish, German and other languages were also recruited, as well as personnel whose previous assignments and experience had gained them proficiency in a language.

From 1965 to 1973, Major General Charles Denholm, supervised the integration of the ASA with the rest of Army Military Intelligence and the organization underwent a dramatic change, including a vast increase in size and scope and a completely changed relationship with the NSA during the final period of its existence. By this point in time it was not, of course, the traditional "ASA".[citation needed]

Menwith Hill is a base of the Royal Air Force near Harrogate , North Yorkshire . On the grounds is the 421st Air Base Squadron stationed represented by the 501st Combat Support Wing of United States Air Forces in Europe will support.

It is important for the American intelligence agencies.
According to British investigative journalist and monitoring expert Duncan Campbell , this site is part of the ECHELON network expanded.

The 709th Military Intelligence Battalion as part of the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade of the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command is stationed here. Before the 16th October 2009, the name of the unit was 109th Military Intelligence Group .

Since 1966, the National Security Agency responsible for the operation of the U.S. portion of the plant. Some of the staff of the now-closed Bad Aibling Station was moved.

Comparable facilities are located in Bude (UK) Sugar Grove (West Virginia, U.S.), Yakima (Washington, U.S.), Sabana Seca (Puerto Rico), Misawa (Japan), Pine Gap (Australia), Geraldton (Australia), Waihopai (New Zealand) and Tangimoana (New Zealand)
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Celle Schloss (Castle) 2014 outside
Celle Castle (German: Schloss Celle) or, less commonly, Celle Palace, in the German town of Celle in Lower Saxony was one of the residences of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg. This four-winged building is the largest castle in the southern Lüneburg Heath region.
Celle Castle is based on a fortified wall tower (Wehrturm) with the character of a water castle, that guarded a ford over the River Aller. This first fortification, called Kellu, was built by a Brunonen count around 980 AD. Another forerunner of the castle, which may have been an extension of the wall tower, was founded in 1292 by Otto the Strict. The cellar vault and the lower stories of the watch tower have survived to the present day. Its ruins lie underneath the castle theatre. Around 1315 the actual Castrum Celle was first recorded. As a consequence of the Lüneburg War of Succession, in 1378 the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg moved their Residenz from Lüneburg to Celle and began transforming the Burg, now encircled by ditches and embankments, into a Schloss. About a century later the castle was further expanded by Frederick the Pious from 1471–1478, and the castle chapel was consecrated in 1485. Ernest I the Confessor had the castle decorated from 1530 in the renaissance style. At the same time, between 1520 and 1560, the defences, in the form of ramparts and bastions, were pushed further out. At this time the castle was typical of its era, a four-winged building with a rectangular courtyard, with massive corner towers, a large main tower and characteristic features of Weser Renaissance.

Celle with its castle (right) in an engraving by Matthäus Merian, 1654
From 1670 onwards alterations to the castle were carried out by Duke George William, which were intended to transform the old renaissance seat into a contemporary Residenz. George William was keen on building, typical of the princes of his time, and made further changes that were intended to recall his time in Italy. The façades, that were copied from Venetian buildings, were then given their present-day appearance. Notable features include the corona of gables that encircles the roofs, and the unusual shape of the domed towers. The addition of the castle theatre and the baroque state rooms stem from this period.

Caroline Matilda, who was banished and lived in Celle Castle; 1771 painting
On the death of George William in 1705 the absolute rule of the dukes ended. The Principality of Lüneburg subsequently passed, along with the Principality of Calenberg, to the Kingdom of Hanover. The castle lost its political significance and stood empty again for a long time. From 1772 it was occupied by the British-born, Danish queen, Caroline Matilda, the daughter of Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, who had been banished to Celle as a result of her affair with Johann Friedrich Struensee of Copenhagen. The unhappy queen only lived at the Celle court until 1775 when she died at a relatively young age of scarlet fever. In the 19th century the castle was occasionally used by the Hanoverian royal household as a summer residence. As a result Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves had several interior alterations made in 1839 and 1840. During the World War I, it was used as a detention camp for officers (Offizerslager or Oflag) by the German Army.
The castle today[edit]
The castle still has a variety of rooms and halls that date back over different periods. The court chapel was converted after the Reformation and has been preserved almost unchanged with its renaissance architecture. The baroque-style state rooms were created under George William and have also been preserved. In the Gothic Hall there are constantly changing exhibitions and in the East Wing is a section of Celle's Bomann Museum, which is dedicated to the history of the Kingdom of Hanover. The historic castle rooms and the castle chapel, restored between 1978 and 1981, may be visited as part of a guided tour.
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Celle High Security Prison - 2014
The Celler " prison ", as in the vernacular is, until today, is the oldest prison in Germany, which is still in function. Here you can read about three centuries all the important phases of the modern penal system conceptually and structurally. They range from the "prison" of the early 18th century to the "high-security wing" of the late 20th century. This can be seen also in frequent name changes, a total of ten times.

The prison was built 1710-1724 as "Werck-, breeding and bedlam". It was built in the French style of Johann Caspar Borchmann , the master builder of Duke Georg Wilhelm . At that time the institution was still out of town in the western suburbs of Celle. It was founded in order not to leave the prisoners to their fate, but to educate. However, this guiding principle was not included in the Latin motto on the gate input "Puniendis facinorosis custodiendia furiosis et instruments captis publico sumptu dicata domus" (for the punishment of evildoers, to guard the maniacal and insane built from public funds house). The educational thought was an idea that was first implemented in Holland (Amsterdam Rasphuis). At that time the very different prisoners were still housed together in halls.

Located in the historic courtyard of the complex you will find the Chur-Hanoverian coat of arms with the motto of the Order of the Garter " Honi soit qui times y pense "(a beggar who thinks evil of it), and the motto of the English crown" Dieu et mon droit "(God and my right). To start of construction (1710) ruled Georg Ludwig I. , Knight of the Garter, and later King of Great Britain. 1833 all the mentally ill were moved out of the house to Hildesheim and admitted the lawyer Georg Friedrich King of Osterode for free expression. End of the 19th century, the institution became the prison cells, the "Isolierzellentrakt", expanded, remains today a valid structure. Towards the end of the Weimar Republic , it was under the Prussian director Fritz Kleist "reform prison". Just have included gymnastics, radio room and readings for the prisoners as well as a museum. Therefore, gave the Celler citizens prison nicknamed "Café Kleist".

From 1934, as early as the time of the Kingdom of Hanover and the Empire, political prisoners arrested, including the Celler KPD -Vorsitzende Otto Elsner and workers of the resistance group Hanomag . One of the Head of the Institution in the period of National Socialism was Otto Marloh . At the end of the Second World War, a total of 228 prisoners died from January until the invasion of the British on 15 April 1945 under the harsh conditions of the overcrowded prison. The dead were not buried in cemeteries, but buried on the prison grounds. After the Second World War, the prison was renamed several times, first in "prison", then in "Prison", in 1972, in "correctional facility". At this time, the new outer wall of concrete and a highly secured special wing for prisoners which arose Red Army Faction . The installation of a modern staircase in the late 1990s was the last major structural intervention.

Known incidents
On 21 May 1984, took prisoners Strüdinger Peter and Norman Kowollik with self-made firearms a prison officials hostage and forced to flee with a BMW and 300,000 D-Mark ransom. You have already the next day in Bremen arrested again, as their getaway car was equipped with a tracking device.

On 21 October 1991 four prisoners overpowered using improvised weapons three prison officials and put them with explosives stuffed ruffs around. With a getaway car and two million D-Mark ransom the perpetrators left the prison. The next day the police announced the identity of the fugitives known: It was Bruno Reckert, Samir El-Atrache, Ivan Jelinic and as "extremely dangerous" classified Dirk Dettmar . After several car thefts and kidnappings, the four perpetrators were arrested two days later; El-Atrache and Reckert were no resistance in Karlsruhe taken, Jelinic and Dettmar after a shootout in Ettlingen .

On 21 May 1995 succeeded Peter Strüdinger again to escape. With his fellow prisoner Günther Finn iron he took again a prison officials hostage and forced again to escape from the prison. This time he escaped with a Porsche and 200,000 D-Mark ransom. Only after 51 hours, the police succeeded, the two fugitives in Osnabrück to arrest again. Finn iron was then in solitary confinement, in which he found himself more than 16 years. criminologists and individual politicians assess the case as inhumane and as "torture".

On 26 February 1996 bound , gagged and raped the murder and rape of prisoners incarcerated end Holger Möhle leg his 48-year-old social worker during a counseling session in the department Saline Moor. Armed with a knife and scissors offender threatened the woman then kill, which is why the prison director Catherine Benne field Kersten offered himself as a replacement hostage and was able to persuade the perpetrators to release the employees. Möhle leg they abused in the same way, before he demanded a getaway car and ransom. Only after four and a half hours the perpetrators to task could be persuaded. In the cell Möhle leg, about the preventive detention was imposed already, the officers found 20 other knives.

In January 2008 it came into the department Saline Moor to sexual abuse of a prisoner by two cellmates in which the victim suffered life-threatening injuries. In January 2011, complained another inmate sexual assaults, but which could not be proved.

Known prisoners
Paul Arndt
Hermann Cornelius
Olaf Däter
Sigurd Debus
Karl-Heinz Dellwo
Dirk Dettmar
Burkhard Driest
Knut Folkerts
Irma Grese
Rudi Goguel
Claus Home
Dietmar Jüschke
Hans Leuss
Rudolf Pleil
Bernhard Rakers
Ronny Rieken
Thomas Rung
Hans Günther Hermann Stumpe
Peter Strüdinger
Lutz Taufer
Karl Tuttas
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