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Massachusetts U.S .Army Security Agency - Ft. Devens / Menwith Hills, England
The United States Army Security Agency (ASA) was the United States Army's signal intelligence branch. The Latin motto of the Army Security Agency was Semper Vigilis (Vigilant Always), which echoes Thomas Jefferson's declaration that "The price of freedom is eternal vigilance."[2] The Agency existed between 1945 and 1976 and was the successor to Army signal intelligence operations dating back to World War I. ASA was under the operational control of the Director of the National Security Agency (DIRNSA), located at Fort Meade, Maryland; but had its own tactical commander at Headquarters, ASA, Arlington Hall Station, VA. Besides intelligence gathering, it had responsibility for the security of Army communications and for electronic countermeasures operations. In 1977, the ASA was merged with the US Army's Military Intelligence component to create the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command (INSCOM).

History[edit]
Composed of soldiers trained in military intelligence, the ASA was tasked with monitoring and interpreting military communications of the Soviet Union, the People’s Republic of China, and their allies and client states around the world. The ASA was directly subordinate to the National Security Agency and all major field stations had NSA technical representatives present.

All gathered information had time-sensitive value depending on its importance and classification. Information was passed through intelligence channels within hours of intercept for the lowest-priority items, but in as little as 10 minutes for the most highly critical information.

ASA personnel were stationed at locations around the globe, wherever the United States had a military presence – publicly acknowledged or otherwise. In some cases, such as Eritrea, it was the primary military presence. One former Field Station, outside of Harrogate, England, in what is now North Yorkshire, was a primary listening post that was subsequently turned over to the British and became an RAF station. It is called RAF Menwith Hill and has been the site of peace protests.

Vietnam War
Although not officially serving under the ASA name, covertly designated as Radio Research, ASA personnel of the 3rd Radio Research Unit were among the earliest U.S. military personnel in Vietnam; 3rd later grew to become the 509th Radio Research Group.
The first ASA soldier to be a battlefield fatality of the Vietnam War was Specialist 4 James T. Davis (from Livingston, Tennessee) who was killed on 22 December 1961, on a road near the old French Garrison of Cau Xang. He had been assigned to the 3rd Radio Research Unit at Tan Son Nhut Airport near Saigon, along with 92 other members of his unit. Davis Station, at Tan Son Nhut, was named after him. Although President Lyndon Johnson later termed Davis "the first American to fall in the defense of our freedom in Vietnam", a look at the Vietnam Veterans' memorial shows that he was nowhere near the first U.S. fatality.

Most ASA personnel processed in country through Davis Station. Others attached to larger command structures prior to transport to Vietnam processed in with those units. ASA personnel were attached to Army infantry and armored cavalry units throughout the Vietnam War. Some teams were also attached to the Studies and Observation Group of Military Assistance Command Vietnam and special forces units. Other teams were independent of other army units, such as the 313th Radio Research Brigade at Nha Trang. ASA personnel remained in Vietnam after the 1973 pullout of US Army combat forces and remained present until the Fall of Saigon in April 1975.

Personnel== ASA MOSs include:
Voice intercept operators, who are usually linguists with MOS 98G (plus a four character suffix (pLnn) to indicate proficiency level and language code), morse code high speed intercept operators ("Ditty Boppers", MOS 058 and later "Hogs" for their 05H designation), non-morse (teletype and voice) intercept operators (05K), communications security/signal security specialists (05G), direction-finding equipment operators ("Duffys" for their 05D designation), computer system operators (74E) who operated equipment at the NSA headquarters and out in the field; A K3 attacked to the primary MOS ment the person was qualified to operate Jamming equipment. There was an additional MOS known as a 93G-Microbarograph specialist. The last class for this MOS was taught at Ft. Devens 1968-1969.

Crypto-Clerks (72B), Cryptanalyst/Cryptanalytic Technician (crippies),(98B), communications traffic analysts (98C), voice intercept operators (Monterey-Marys)(98G) non-communications intercept/analysts (98J – radar and telemetry) electronic cryptographic maintenance technicians(32F-G, and 33S), and Specialized Teletypewriter Equipment Repairman (31J B3).

Electronic Maintenance MOS' included 32D Technical Controller, 33B intercept equipment repairman, 33C Intercept Receiver Repairman, 33D Intercept Record System Repairmen, 33F Digital Demultiplex Intercept Systems Repairman, 34F Digital Systems Terminal Equipment Repairman and 33G Electronics Countermeasures System Repairmen and a 44 man Special Operations Detachment or field teams to conduct clandestine combat operations, among others. ASA had its own separate training facilities, communication centers and chain of command. In 1976, all 33 MOS designations were consolidated into one field, 33S Electronic Repairman. The designation became Electronic Warfare Intercept Systems Repairman.

Other specialists intercepted and analyzed radar transmissions or intercepted communications and data transmissions from missiles and satellites.

These occupations, which required a top secret clearance with Special Intelligence/crypto special clearances, were essential to U.S. Cold War efforts. ASA units usually operated in four groups called 'tricks', using revolving shifts to provide coverage twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week. ASA troops were not allowed to discuss their operations with outsiders – in fact, they could not talk among themselves about their duties unless they were in a secure location. Even today, some of the missions still cannot be discussed. ASA personnel processing out of sensitive operations were debriefed and signed a document specifying a thirty-year elapsed time before they could discuss what they had done or observed. Note: Information other than XGDS (eXempt from General Declassification Schedule) is automatically declassified after 30 years.

Owing to the sensitivity of the information with which they worked, ASA personnel were subject to travel restrictions during and sometimes after their time in service.[citation needed] The activities of the ASA have only recently been partially declassified. This turn of events has been accompanied by the appearance of a small number of ASA memoirs and novels (see the list below).
Human resources (1945–1965

The ASA, during the majority of the years of its existence, was largely a "Cold War" operation. ASA enlisted troops were usually recruited from those scoring in the top 2% of scores in aptitude tests given during initial induction.

The Army itself exhibited little concern for the ASA until 1965, as it was a "Joint venture" essentially under the control of a civilian organization. However, there was a general concern in the Department of the Army that enlisted technicians of all kinds should be given recognition and adequate pay in order to retain them. Accordingly, in 1954, Army Regulation 615–15 created the grades of Specialists Four, Five, Six, and Seven, (SP4, SP5, SP6, SP7) corresponding to Corporal (E4), Sergeant (E5), Staff Sergeant (E6), and Sergeant First Class (E7), in order to get around the general Table of Organization and Equipment restrictions on the total number of individuals (normally regular NCOs), who could be placed in these grades. Promotion in the specialist grades was fairly rapid with specialists with two years of military experience reaching E5 and E6 in another two years. Due to the long training requirements, an initial four-year enlistment was normal. However despite sometimes intensive efforts to retain personnel, reenlistment rates were very low.

In 1958, DA Reg 344–303 also created Specialist Grades Specialist Eight and Nine. There were never more than a handful of Specialist 7’s in the ASA and no individual in the ASA was ever promoted to the grades of Specialist 8 or 9 before these top grades were eliminated in 1965.[citation needed] Promotion to warrant officer after E7 was the normal military progression in ASA units.

The officers within the ASA were generally commissioned into the Signal Corps branch since there was no separate branch for ASA. Effective in 1967, the Military Intelligence (MI) branch stood up and officers were commissioned into MI.

In today’s Army, modern technology has largely replaced the specific tasks performed by most ASA troops. The current Army MOS Military Intelligence 35 series involving SIGINT, requires the same high security clearance levels as the old ASA standards. However, the modern Soldier in the MOS 35 series actually perform the full range of now computer-driven SIGINT functions that the average ASA trooper performed manually. These functions are still performed today, they are collection, processing, analysis and reporting. Before computers were brought to bear on the very complex problem of communications/signals analysis ASA personnel performed these functions by hand.

ASA specialists and linguists were recruited from high-scoring enlistees or inductees. Specialists in different MOS were trained at Arlington Hall Station, Fort Devens Massachusetts and the Joint Service Cryptologic Center and School at Goodfellow Air Force Base in San Angelo, Texas. Some communications personnel were trained at Signal Corps facilities while those selected to be linguists were given 9 to 12 month language courses which were usually taught by native born instructors at DLI at the Presidio of Monterey, California and in Washington, D.C. Native born speakers in Spanish, German and other languages were also recruited, as well as personnel whose previous assignments and experience had gained them proficiency in a language.

From 1965 to 1973, Major General Charles Denholm, supervised the integration of the ASA with the rest of Army Military Intelligence and the organization underwent a dramatic change, including a vast increase in size and scope and a completely changed relationship with the NSA during the final period of its existence. By this point in time it was not, of course, the traditional "ASA".[citation needed]

Menwith Hill is a base of the Royal Air Force near Harrogate , North Yorkshire . On the grounds is the 421st Air Base Squadron stationed represented by the 501st Combat Support Wing of United States Air Forces in Europe will support.

It is important for the American intelligence agencies.
According to British investigative journalist and monitoring expert Duncan Campbell , this site is part of the ECHELON network expanded.

The 709th Military Intelligence Battalion as part of the 66th Military Intelligence Brigade of the United States Army Intelligence and Security Command is stationed here. Before the 16th October 2009, the name of the unit was 109th Military Intelligence Group .

Since 1966, the National Security Agency responsible for the operation of the U.S. portion of the plant. Some of the staff of the now-closed Bad Aibling Station was moved.

Comparable facilities are located in Bude (UK) Sugar Grove (West Virginia, U.S.), Yakima (Washington, U.S.), Sabana Seca (Puerto Rico), Misawa (Japan), Pine Gap (Australia), Geraldton (Australia), Waihopai (New Zealand) and Tangimoana (New Zealand)
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Celle Schloss (Castle) 2014 outside
Celle Castle (German: Schloss Celle) or, less commonly, Celle Palace, in the German town of Celle in Lower Saxony was one of the residences of the House of Brunswick-Lüneburg. This four-winged building is the largest castle in the southern Lüneburg Heath region.
Celle Castle is based on a fortified wall tower (Wehrturm) with the character of a water castle, that guarded a ford over the River Aller. This first fortification, called Kellu, was built by a Brunonen count around 980 AD. Another forerunner of the castle, which may have been an extension of the wall tower, was founded in 1292 by Otto the Strict. The cellar vault and the lower stories of the watch tower have survived to the present day. Its ruins lie underneath the castle theatre. Around 1315 the actual Castrum Celle was first recorded. As a consequence of the Lüneburg War of Succession, in 1378 the Dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg moved their Residenz from Lüneburg to Celle and began transforming the Burg, now encircled by ditches and embankments, into a Schloss. About a century later the castle was further expanded by Frederick the Pious from 1471–1478, and the castle chapel was consecrated in 1485. Ernest I the Confessor had the castle decorated from 1530 in the renaissance style. At the same time, between 1520 and 1560, the defences, in the form of ramparts and bastions, were pushed further out. At this time the castle was typical of its era, a four-winged building with a rectangular courtyard, with massive corner towers, a large main tower and characteristic features of Weser Renaissance.

Celle with its castle (right) in an engraving by Matthäus Merian, 1654
From 1670 onwards alterations to the castle were carried out by Duke George William, which were intended to transform the old renaissance seat into a contemporary Residenz. George William was keen on building, typical of the princes of his time, and made further changes that were intended to recall his time in Italy. The façades, that were copied from Venetian buildings, were then given their present-day appearance. Notable features include the corona of gables that encircles the roofs, and the unusual shape of the domed towers. The addition of the castle theatre and the baroque state rooms stem from this period.

Caroline Matilda, who was banished and lived in Celle Castle; 1771 painting
On the death of George William in 1705 the absolute rule of the dukes ended. The Principality of Lüneburg subsequently passed, along with the Principality of Calenberg, to the Kingdom of Hanover. The castle lost its political significance and stood empty again for a long time. From 1772 it was occupied by the British-born, Danish queen, Caroline Matilda, the daughter of Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales, who had been banished to Celle as a result of her affair with Johann Friedrich Struensee of Copenhagen. The unhappy queen only lived at the Celle court until 1775 when she died at a relatively young age of scarlet fever. In the 19th century the castle was occasionally used by the Hanoverian royal household as a summer residence. As a result Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves had several interior alterations made in 1839 and 1840. During the World War I, it was used as a detention camp for officers (Offizerslager or Oflag) by the German Army.
The castle today[edit]
The castle still has a variety of rooms and halls that date back over different periods. The court chapel was converted after the Reformation and has been preserved almost unchanged with its renaissance architecture. The baroque-style state rooms were created under George William and have also been preserved. In the Gothic Hall there are constantly changing exhibitions and in the East Wing is a section of Celle's Bomann Museum, which is dedicated to the history of the Kingdom of Hanover. The historic castle rooms and the castle chapel, restored between 1978 and 1981, may be visited as part of a guided tour.
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Celle High Security Prison - 2014
The Celler " prison ", as in the vernacular is, until today, is the oldest prison in Germany, which is still in function. Here you can read about three centuries all the important phases of the modern penal system conceptually and structurally. They range from the "prison" of the early 18th century to the "high-security wing" of the late 20th century. This can be seen also in frequent name changes, a total of ten times.

The prison was built 1710-1724 as "Werck-, breeding and bedlam". It was built in the French style of Johann Caspar Borchmann , the master builder of Duke Georg Wilhelm . At that time the institution was still out of town in the western suburbs of Celle. It was founded in order not to leave the prisoners to their fate, but to educate. However, this guiding principle was not included in the Latin motto on the gate input "Puniendis facinorosis custodiendia furiosis et instruments captis publico sumptu dicata domus" (for the punishment of evildoers, to guard the maniacal and insane built from public funds house). The educational thought was an idea that was first implemented in Holland (Amsterdam Rasphuis). At that time the very different prisoners were still housed together in halls.

Located in the historic courtyard of the complex you will find the Chur-Hanoverian coat of arms with the motto of the Order of the Garter " Honi soit qui times y pense "(a beggar who thinks evil of it), and the motto of the English crown" Dieu et mon droit "(God and my right). To start of construction (1710) ruled Georg Ludwig I. , Knight of the Garter, and later King of Great Britain. 1833 all the mentally ill were moved out of the house to Hildesheim and admitted the lawyer Georg Friedrich King of Osterode for free expression. End of the 19th century, the institution became the prison cells, the "Isolierzellentrakt", expanded, remains today a valid structure. Towards the end of the Weimar Republic , it was under the Prussian director Fritz Kleist "reform prison". Just have included gymnastics, radio room and readings for the prisoners as well as a museum. Therefore, gave the Celler citizens prison nicknamed "Café Kleist".

From 1934, as early as the time of the Kingdom of Hanover and the Empire, political prisoners arrested, including the Celler KPD -Vorsitzende Otto Elsner and workers of the resistance group Hanomag . One of the Head of the Institution in the period of National Socialism was Otto Marloh . At the end of the Second World War, a total of 228 prisoners died from January until the invasion of the British on 15 April 1945 under the harsh conditions of the overcrowded prison. The dead were not buried in cemeteries, but buried on the prison grounds. After the Second World War, the prison was renamed several times, first in "prison", then in "Prison", in 1972, in "correctional facility". At this time, the new outer wall of concrete and a highly secured special wing for prisoners which arose Red Army Faction . The installation of a modern staircase in the late 1990s was the last major structural intervention.

Known incidents
On 21 May 1984, took prisoners Strüdinger Peter and Norman Kowollik with self-made firearms a prison officials hostage and forced to flee with a BMW and 300,000 D-Mark ransom. You have already the next day in Bremen arrested again, as their getaway car was equipped with a tracking device.

On 21 October 1991 four prisoners overpowered using improvised weapons three prison officials and put them with explosives stuffed ruffs around. With a getaway car and two million D-Mark ransom the perpetrators left the prison. The next day the police announced the identity of the fugitives known: It was Bruno Reckert, Samir El-Atrache, Ivan Jelinic and as "extremely dangerous" classified Dirk Dettmar . After several car thefts and kidnappings, the four perpetrators were arrested two days later; El-Atrache and Reckert were no resistance in Karlsruhe taken, Jelinic and Dettmar after a shootout in Ettlingen .

On 21 May 1995 succeeded Peter Strüdinger again to escape. With his fellow prisoner Günther Finn iron he took again a prison officials hostage and forced again to escape from the prison. This time he escaped with a Porsche and 200,000 D-Mark ransom. Only after 51 hours, the police succeeded, the two fugitives in Osnabrück to arrest again. Finn iron was then in solitary confinement, in which he found himself more than 16 years. criminologists and individual politicians assess the case as inhumane and as "torture".

On 26 February 1996 bound , gagged and raped the murder and rape of prisoners incarcerated end Holger Möhle leg his 48-year-old social worker during a counseling session in the department Saline Moor. Armed with a knife and scissors offender threatened the woman then kill, which is why the prison director Catherine Benne field Kersten offered himself as a replacement hostage and was able to persuade the perpetrators to release the employees. Möhle leg they abused in the same way, before he demanded a getaway car and ransom. Only after four and a half hours the perpetrators to task could be persuaded. In the cell Möhle leg, about the preventive detention was imposed already, the officers found 20 other knives.

In January 2008 it came into the department Saline Moor to sexual abuse of a prisoner by two cellmates in which the victim suffered life-threatening injuries. In January 2011, complained another inmate sexual assaults, but which could not be proved.

Known prisoners
Paul Arndt
Hermann Cornelius
Olaf Däter
Sigurd Debus
Karl-Heinz Dellwo
Dirk Dettmar
Burkhard Driest
Knut Folkerts
Irma Grese
Rudi Goguel
Claus Home
Dietmar Jüschke
Hans Leuss
Rudolf Pleil
Bernhard Rakers
Ronny Rieken
Thomas Rung
Hans Günther Hermann Stumpe
Peter Strüdinger
Lutz Taufer
Karl Tuttas
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Celle Triftt-Anlagen Park 2014
The original old drovers before the Wester Celler Tor background was the last Celler Duke Georg Wilhelm (1624-1705) in a so. "Proposal-Ritz" on plans in 1680 for the first time.
Required for this was the expansion of the city to the west. The drift should serve as a highway in east-west direction for the northern and southern buildings and would therefore have stood in the tradition of the typical urban expansion plans of the second half of the 17th century.
Except for a brisk construction activity at the edges of the drift, however, there was no further reaction. Between 1710 and 1730 almost castle-like prison on the northwestern edge emerged. In the course of this construction, the drift should be redesigned as a park: a baroque planning design shows new avenues and walkways, a pond in the west and in the east on a notified with trees lawn triangle. Also, these plans were not realized, on the contrary, until well into the 19th century the system of use as cattle pasture, pasture and warehouse space was reserved.

It was not until the use prohibition of 1833 led the transformation of drift in a homogeneous designed in landscape style park a (description of plan 1864). These measures are closely related with the intense this time the landscape transformation of the French Garden and the expansion of the castle park.
Officially in charge was the Royal Court Marshal Office in Hannover, led by EC of MALORTIE. With planning of working in the Hanoverian George Garden inspector Ch. SCHAUMBURG was charged with the execution took over the then Celler Hofgärtner L. HINKELDEYN.
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Celle French Garden
The French Garden was probably named after the two French gardeners, Henri Péronnet (from 1670) and René Dahuron (1680 to 1701), who were in the service of Celle’s Duke George William. It was due to Dahuron that the first comprehensive kitchen garden and pleasure garden in the court tradition of the early 17th century were established.
and 1696 a double row of lime trees was planted giving the park a dominant central east-west axis. This lime tree avenue was completely renewed between 1951 and 1953.

In 1705 Celle ceased to be a ducal seat and consequently the park was neglected. Only in 1772, when the Danish queen Mathilde was exiled to Celle, the park sprung back to life under the auspice of court gardener Krantz. The initial square pond was converted into the present-day round pond. The French Garden also includes the Caroline Mathilde memorial which was created by the eminent painter and sculptor Adam Friedrich Oeser and erected in 1784 on the initiative of the Knighthood and the Estates.

Soon afterwards maintenance problems reoccurred in the park. The thatched-roofed summer house erected for the exiled queen in the eastern section was demolished in 1801. It was only under the dedicated Hanoverian chief court marshall Malortie that the French Garden, based on plans by garden inspector Schaumburg, was gradually converted into an English-style landscaped garden in the mid- 19th century.

After World War I a children’s playground was established in the eastern section which still exists to this day. In the western section however a small rose garden was created (renewed in 1996), and in 1927 the Regional Institute for Bee Research (nowadays the LAVES Institute for Apiculture) was built in the northern section which had been separated from the garden.

Now the French Garden is a listed park.

Through small adjustments from current maintenance work the worthy character of the landscape park of 1860 will be gradually restored.
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1a-Me, Myself and I-August-2011
(Aug 20, 2011)
© Georg Behrendt
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Celle 2014 Fire Department
Celebration of 150 years of a professional frie department August 2014
The Feuerwehr (German for fire defence) is a number of German fire departments. The responsible bodies for operating and equipping fire departments are the German communities ("Gemeinden") and cities ("Städte"). By law, they are required to operate fire-fighting forces. In cities, this is usually performed by the Fire Prevention Bureau, one of the higher-ranking authorities.
Most of Germany's 1,383,730 fire fighters are members of Freiwillige Feuerwehr (voluntary fire brigades), with a lesser number working in professional fire brigades operated by
a municipal body, such as the city of Berlin (Berufsfeuerwehr - full-time city department)
a larger company ("Werkfeuerwehr", for the needs of the company operating them) e.g. refineries or chemical industry production facilities
airports to meet the ICAO requirements ("Flughafenfeuerwehr" - this includes airplane factories like that of Airbus in Hamburg)
the armed forces ("Bundeswehr-Feuerwehr" with specialized divisions such as "Fliegerhorstfeuerwehr Cologne-Wahn"/located at German air force bases, military bases, naval bases as well as on any ship of the German navy).
By law, cities with a population of more than 80,000–100,000 people (depending on the state) are required to have a professional fire-fighting force ("Berufsfeuerwehr"). Others such as smaller cities and towns can set up a full-time force ("Hauptamtliche Wachbereitschaft"), which is basically a group or a squadron occupying one large fire station around the clock. This force deals with smaller incidents on its own and is supported by voluntary forces for larger incidents. Each community meets the need of fire-fighting personnel by setting up a voluntary force ("Freiwillige Feuerwehr"). A community or a city may also set up a professional fire fighting force without additional volunteer forces. In case it is not possible to recruit enough personnel for this job, the mayor of a city is required to set up a "Pflichtfeuerwehr" (compulsory fire brigade), where he will draft the number of personnel required.
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Celle VW Old Timers event
(Aug 3, 2014)
Held in the city of Celle in the Schooten Fest property
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